Jesus went on his way towards Jerusalem, and when he came within sight of the city he wept over it and said, "Would that you had learned, while there was time--yes, even you--the things that make for peace! But as it is, they have been hidden from your sight. For a time is coming for you when your enemies will surround you with earthworks, and encircle you, and hem you in on every side; they will trample you down and your children within you, and they will not leave in you one stone upon another, because you did not see that God was visiting you." (Twentieth Century N. T., Luke 19:42-44.)Eastlake, Plate, 124,
has not followed the scriptural account closely, but has designed a panel, with the text in mind, possibly influenced also by Matt. 23:37, "How often would I have gathered thy children together as a hen gathers her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!"
Plate 124. Christ Weeps Over Jerusalem.
Sir Charles Eastlake. 1793- 1865.Deger, Plate 123,
represents the triumphal entry into Jerusalem as recorded in all the Gospels, but with most complete detail in Luke 19:29-44. The people threw their garments upon a colt, and set Jesus thereon, and accompanied him from Bethpage to Jerusalem, waving palm branches (John 12:13), and spreading garments and palms in the street (Matt. 21:8), and shouting "Hosanna, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord." (Matt. 21:9.) The artist has allowed the mother of Jesus to witness this short lived triumph of her son; nor has he forgotten the children (Matt. 21:15).
Plate 123. Triumphal Entry.
Ernest Deger. 1809-1885.Doré, Plates 125 and 127,
gives two incidents of the early part of the week: the Herodians asking about tribute to Cæsar (Matt. 22:16- 22), and the poor widow giving her contribution to the temple treasury (Mark 12:41-44).
Plate 125. Jesus and the Tribute Money.
Gustave Doré. 1833-1883.
Plate 127. The Widow's Mite.
Gustave Doré. 1833-1883.Titian, Plate 126,
in dealing with the incident of the tribute to Cæsar, has selected the moment Doré selected, when Jesus asks, "Whose image and superscription hath it?" (Mark 20:24.)
Plate 126. Tribute to Cæsar.
Titian. 1477-1576.Van Dyck, Plate 96,
has chosen the moment when Jesus says, "Render therefore unto Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's, and unto God the things that are God's" (Matt. 22:21).
Plate 96. Tribute Money.
A. Van Dyck. 1599-1641.
Towards the close of his discourse about The Last Things, Jesus gave the parable of the Wise and Foolish Virgins. (Matt. 25:1-13.)Poloty, Plate 128,
has attempted to illustrate this parable, and has chosen the moment when the foolish virgins discover that they are unprepared. (Verses 8 and 9.) Evidently the cry, "Behold the bridegroom cometh," was not heard, upon this occasion, "at midnight" (Verse 6.)
Plate 128. Parable of the Virgins.
Carl Theodor von Poloty. 1826- 1886.
THE LAST SUPPER.
Plate 129. Conspiracy Against Jesus.
Alexandre Bida. 1813-1895.
When the disciples entered the upper room all had neglected to assume the office of servant in preparation for the meal. They were disputing as to who should be the greatest in the kingdom. (Luke 22:24.) Jesus therefore arose from the table and performed the act of cleansing.Brown, Plate 133,
has portrayed the incident wonderfully well. The dialogue with Peter is just finished. (John 13:6-10.)
Plate 133. Jesus Washes the Disciples' Feet.
Ford Madox Brown. 1821-1893.Da Vinci, Plate 131,
has excelled all others in rendering the effects of the announcement Jesus made shortly afterwards, when they were at table again, "One of you shall betray me." Some of the disciples wonder (John 13:22), some ask, "Is it I?" (Mark 14:19.) Peter whispers to John to inquire who it is. (John 13:24.) The face of Judas alone is in shadow and inscrutable. Presently Judas will go out to the conspiring chief priests. (John 13:27-30.)
Plate 131. The Last Supper.
Leonardo Da Vinci. 1452-1519.
When Judas had departed, Jesus said, "Now is the Son of man glorified." (John 13:31.) "And as they were eating, Jesus took bread and blessed, and break it."Bida, Plate 132,
gives a graphic picture of the moment of blessing the bread. "This is my body which is given for you," he said (Luke 22:19). "This do in remembrance of me."
Plate 132. The Last Supper.
Alexandra Bida. 1813-1895.
Bida shows the bent figure of Judas retreating into the darkness.Hofmann, Plate 130,
continues the story. "And he took a cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it; for this is my blood of the covenant, which is shed for many unto remission of sins." (Matt. 26:27-28.)
Plate 130. The Last Supper.
H. Hofmann. 1824-
No one has portrayed more clearly the characteristic attitudes of the disciples who heard these astonishing words. John is the only one who seems to appreciate the meaning of the sacrament. John only seems to have recalled distinctly what followed--the touching and comforting farewell discourses.
Hofmann, as well as Bida, shows the retreating Judas, going out into the night. "And when they had sung a hymn, they went out unto the mount of Olives." (Mark 14:26.)
"And they came unto a place which was named Gethesame; and he said unto his disciples, Sit ye here, while I go yonder and pray." (Mark 14:32, Matt. 26:36.)Hofmann, Plate 136,
reveals to us the Master in prayer, with Peter, James, and John in the distance. (Mark 14:33.) The moment is that when Jesus triumphs with the words, "Thy will be done." (Matt. 26:42.)
Plate 136. Jesus in Gethsemane.
H. Hofmann. 1824-Dolci, Plate 135,
shows the angel which came and strengthened him. (Luke 22:43.) The angel bears the cross and the cup as symbols, but the cup brought that which was sufficient to the occasion. (Compare II. Cor. 12:9.)
Plate 135. Agony in the Garden.
Carlo Dolci. 1616-1686.
Jesus returned to the sleeping disciples. "Look," he said, "my betrayer is close at hand." He had hardly said the words when Judas came in sight with a crowd of people with swords and staffs. Judas came to Jesus and exclaimed, "I am glad to see you, Rabbi," and kissed him. (Twentieth Century N. T., Matt. 26:46-50.)Scheffer, Plate 137,
attempts to place the two characters, Jesus and Judas, in strong contrast before our eyes; but he hardly touches even the outside!
Plate 137. Kiss of Judas.
Ary Scheffer.Hofmann, Plate 138,
represents the captive Christ. Judas, smitten already with remorse, skulks along clutching his bag of silver. Mary is watching from a distance. John is weeping upon Peter's neck. "So the band and the chief captain and the officers of the Jews, seized Jesus, and bound him, and led him to Annas." (John 18:12-13.) Simon Peter and another disciple followed Jesus afar off, and managed to gain admittance to the court of the high priest's house. There Peter denied his Lord.
Plate 138. Jesus Taken Captive.
H. Hofmann. 1824-West, Plate 140,
represents Peter denying before the maid-servant (John 18:17), evidently the first time, for he was more violent the second time the maid questioned him. (Mark 14:70-71.) The painter has introduced the figure of Jesus to make the picture more intelligible. The maid seems to be asking Jesus if Peter has told the truth.
Plate 140. Peter's Denial of Christ.
Benjamin West. 1738-1820.Harrach, Plate 139,
gives the denial of Peter before the soldiers in the presence of the maid-servant. (Mark 14:54 and 67.) As Peter denies, the cock, above in the branches of a vine, crows as Jesus had predicted. Harrach has seized upon the moment recorded by Luke alone. "And the Lord turned and looked upon Peter." (Luke 22:61.) And Peter remembered, and went out and wept bitterly. (Verse 6.)
Plate 139. Peter's Denial of Christ.
In the morning the trial is continued before Pilate. Probably no one has painted that scene so well as has Munkacsy, Plate 141.
The picture is true to the accounts of the evangelists, and is besides a great study of character. The face of Christ is about the only inadequate piece of representation in the whole picture. Munkacsy has evidently followed Luke's account. "And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this man perverting our nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Cæsar." The moment may be that after which Pilate says, "I find no fault in this man," and the accusers "become more urgent, saying, He stirreth up the people" (Luke 23:4, 5).
Plate 141. Trial Before Pilate.
M'Haly Munkacsy. 1846-
Then the soldiers took Jesus into the Pretorium, and stripped him, and scourged him, and plaited a crown of thorns, and gave him a scarlet robe, and put a reed in his hand. Smiting him again and again on the head, they offered him mock reverence.Guido, Plate 142,
portrays Jesus at this time (Matt. 27:27-30). Afterwards Pilate brings Jesus forth to the crowd and says, "Behold the Man." (John 19:5.)
Plate 142. Ecce Homo.
Guido Reni. 1575-1642.Ciseri, Plate 143,
takes us upon the colonnade with Pilate and Jesus, and gives us a sense of the mad crowd below--immense, implacable--shouting "Crucify him! Crucify him!" (John 19:6.)
Plate 143. Ecce Homo.
Antonio Ciseri. 1825-Hofmann, Plate 144,
shows "the man" to us, and says, Behold him! Hofmann too, suggests the angry crowd, and in the distance introduces the three Marys. Both these artists include Pilate's wife in the picture because of Matt. 27:19.
Plate 144. Ecce Homo.
H. Hofmann. 1824-Doré, Plate 145,
with his love of the extraordinary, has objectified such a dream as he supposes might have caused a Roman matron to 'suffer many things.' She sees the living and the dead, all heaven and hell attendant upon the Christ, and because of this fears for the welfare of her husband if he does not protect so august a person as this mysterious King, whose Kingdom is not of this world.
Plate 145. Pilate's Wife's Dream.
Gustave Doré. 1833-1883.